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A brief treatment of Zionism follows. For fuller treatments, see Israel : zionism ; Judaism : zionism .
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Israel : zionism
mod Israel springs from both religious and political sources. The biblical promise of a estate for the Jews and a return to the synagogue …
In the 16th and 17th centuries a number of “ messiahs ” came forward trying to persuade Jews to “ return ” to Palestine. The Haskala ( “ Jewish Enlightenment ” ) movement of the late eighteenth hundred, however, urged Jews to assimilate into western profane acculturation. In the early nineteenth century interest in a hark back of the Jews to Palestine was kept active largely by christian millenarians. Despite the Haskala, eastern european Jews did not assimilate and, in reaction to tsarist pogroms, formed the Ḥovevei Ẕiyyon ( “ Lovers of Zion ” ) to promote the settlement of jewish farmers and artisans in Palestine. A political turn was given to Zionism by Theodor Herzl, an austrian journalist who regarded acculturation as most desirable but, in view of anti-semitism, impossible to realize. frankincense, he argued, if Jews were forced by external pressure to form a nation, they could lead a normal being only through assiduity in one district. In 1897 Herzl convened the first Zionist Congress at Basel, Switzerland, which drew up the Basel program of the campaign, stating that “ Zionism strives to create for the jewish people a home in Palestine secured by public law. ” The kernel of the movement was established in Vienna, where Herzl published the official weekly Die Welt ( “ The World ” ). zionist congresses met annually until 1901 and then every two years. When the Ottoman politics refused Herzl ’ s request for palestinian autonomy, he found support in Great Britain. In 1903 the british government offered 6,000 square miles ( 15,500 squarely kilometer ) of uninhabited Uganda for colonization, but the Zionists held out for Palestine. At the death of Herzl in 1904, the leadership moved from Vienna to Cologne and then to Berlin. Prior to World War I, Zionism represented only a minority of Jews, by and large from Russia but led by Austrians and Germans. It developed propaganda through orators and pamphlets, created its own newspapers, and gave an drift to what was called a “ jewish rebirth ” in letters and arts. The development of the Modern Hebrew linguistic process largely took invest during that period.
The failure of the russian Revolution of 1905 and the wave of pogroms and repressions that followed caused growing numbers of russian Jewish youth to emigrate to Palestine as pioneer settlers. By 1914 there were about 90,000 Jews in Palestine ; 13,000 settlers lived in 43 jewish agrarian settlements, many of them supported by the french Jewish philanthropist Baron Edmond de Rothschild. Upon the outbreak of World War I, political zionism reasserted itself, and its leadership passed to russian Jews live in England. Two such Zionists, Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, were implemental in obtaining the Balfour Declaration from Great Britain ( November 2, 1917 ), which promised british documentation for the creation of a jewish national home in Palestine. The declaration was included in Britain ’ s League of Nations mandate over Palestine ( 1922 ). In the take after years the Zionists built up the jewish urban and rural settlements in Palestine, perfecting autonomous organizations and solidifying jewish cultural life and Hebrew department of education. In March 1925 the jewish population in Palestine was formally estimated at 108,000, and it rose to about 238,000 ( 20 percentage of the population ) by 1933. jewish immigration remained relatively slow, however, until the get up of Hitler in Europe. Nevertheless, the arab population feared that Palestine would finally become a jewish state and bitterly resisted Zionism and the british policy supporting it. british forces struggled to maintain order in the face of a series of Arab uprisings. The tense of suppressing the arabian disgust of 1936–39, which was more across-the-board and sustained than earlier uprisings, ultimately led Britain to reassess its policies. In hopes of keeping the peace between Jews and Palestinian Arabs and retaining arab support against Germany and Italy in World War II, Britain placed restrictions on jewish immigration in 1939. The newly restrictions were violently opposed by Zionist belowground groups such as the Stern Gang and Irgun Zvai Leumi, which committed acts of terrorism and assassination against the british and organized illegal jewish immigration to Palestine. The large-scale extermination of european Jews by the Nazis led many Jews to seek safety in Palestine and many others, particularly in the United States, to embrace Zionism. As tensions grew among Arabs and Zionists, Britain submitted the Palestine trouble first to Anglo-U.S. discussion for a solution and late to the United Nations, which on November 29, 1947, proposed partition of the country into offprint Arab and Jewish states and the internationalization of Jerusalem. The creation of the State of Israel on May 14, 1948, triggered an invasion by the neighbor arab countries that was thoroughly defeated by the israeli army. ( See Arab-Israeli War of 1948–49. ) By the time armistice agreements were signed in 1949, Israel held more domain than had been allotted to it under the UN partition design. About 800,000 Arabs had besides fled or been expelled from the area that became Israel. Thus, 50 years after the first gear Zionist sexual intercourse and 30 years after the Balfour Declaration, Zionism achieved its target of establishing a jewish department of state in Palestine, but at the lapp time, it became an armed camp surrounded by hostile Arab nations, and palestinian organizations engaged in terrorism in and outside Israel. During the future two decades zionist organizations in many countries continued to raise fiscal support for Israel and to encourage Jews to immigrate there. Most Jews, however, reject the horizon propagated by some identical orthodox Jews in Israel that the Jews outside Israel were living in “ exile ” and could live a wax life entirely in Israel.
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